All posts tagged: substantially

New drug substantially reduces both weight and cholesterol levels, study finds

New drug substantially reduces both weight and cholesterol levels, study finds

Scientists have achieved significant weight loss in obese mice by introducing medication directly into the liver via a novel nanogel carrier. (CREDIT: Creative Commons) In a groundbreaking discovery, scientists have achieved significant weight loss in obese mice by introducing medication directly into the liver via a novel nanogel carrier. This innovative approach circumvents the issues associated with systemic drug administration, markedly reducing potential side effects. The significance of this method becomes apparent when considering the broader picture. A staggering one hundred million Americans suffer from obesity and related cardiometabolic disorders, comments S. Thai Thayumanavan, a renowned biomedical engineer and chemist from the University of Massachusetts Amherst. “We became pretty excited about this work,” he reveals. The brilliance of this approach is encapsulated, quite literally, in the nanogel. These minuscule carriers are loaded with a synthetic thyroid hormone drug termed a thyromimetic. Essential for liver metabolism, thyroid hormones can be ineffective when taken systemically and carry adverse side effects. A scanning electron micrograph of a section through a vein in the liver, showing red blood cells …

Groundbreaking skin cancer vaccine offers substantially improved survival for men

Groundbreaking skin cancer vaccine offers substantially improved survival for men

A second generation melanoma vaccine is demonstrating significant improvements in long-term survival rates for melanoma patients compared to its predecessor. (CREDIT: Creative Commons) A groundbreaking melanoma vaccine, currently in its second generation of development at UVA Cancer Center, is demonstrating significant improvements in long-term survival rates for melanoma patients compared to its predecessor, according to recent research. Moreover, this advancement seems to offer greater benefits to male patients than female patients, potentially reshaping the landscape of cancer vaccine development. Led by Dr. Craig L. Slingluff Jr., the team of vaccine developers discovered that by concurrently activating crucial immune cells known as “helper T cells” to recognize melanoma proteins alongside stimulating killer T cells against melanoma, they could enhance the efficacy of their melanoma vaccine. This dual action not only improved patient survival rates but also acted as a barrier against cancer reoccurrence. Craig L. Slingluff Jr., MD, and his team at UVA Cancer Center have developed a second-generation melanoma vaccine to treat the dangerous skin cancer. (CREDIT: Dan Addison | UVA Health) While the reason …

Number of Chinese Workers in Africa Drops Substantially

Number of Chinese Workers in Africa Drops Substantially

Johannesburg, South Africa —  The number of Chinese workers across Africa has hit its lowest level in more than a decade, new data from China’s National Bureau of Statistics show. From a record high of 263,696 workers on the continent in 2015, only 88,371 were recorded in 2022, the most recent year on record. The China Africa Research Initiative at Johns Hopkins University, which analyzed data from 2009 to 2022, attributed the drop in numbers partially to the pandemic as Chinese workers left during that period and the country only reopened in early 2023. But the plummeting numbers are also due to a variety of other factors, experts said, including oil prices and the downscaling of Chinese leader Xi Jinping’s global Belt and Road Initiative, which initially saw thousands of Chinese sent out across the continent to work on large infrastructure projects. Uptick expected? “We have no data for 2023, but anecdotally we hear that more postponed projects are resuming. Yet we are unlikely to see the high numbers of the past,” said Deborah Brautigam, …

Groundbreaking new drug substantially reduces both weight and cholesterol levels

Groundbreaking new drug substantially reduces both weight and cholesterol levels

This innovative approach circumvents the issues associated with systemic drug administration, markedly reducing potential side effects. (CREDIT: iStock Photo) In a groundbreaking discovery, scientists have achieved significant weight loss in obese mice by introducing medication directly into the liver via a novel nanogel carrier. This innovative approach circumvents the issues associated with systemic drug administration, markedly reducing potential side effects. The significance of this method becomes apparent when considering the broader picture. A staggering one hundred million Americans suffer from obesity and related cardiometabolic disorders, comments S. Thai Thayumanavan, a renowned biomedical engineer and chemist from the University of Massachusetts Amherst. “We became pretty excited about this work,” he reveals. The brilliance of this approach is encapsulated, quite literally, in the nanogel. These minuscule carriers are loaded with a synthetic thyroid hormone drug termed a thyromimetic. Essential for liver metabolism, thyroid hormones can be ineffective when taken systemically and carry adverse side effects. A scanning electron micrograph of a section through a vein in the liver, showing red blood cells surrounded by hepatocytes (green). (CREDIT: …

Cutting-edge tinnitus treatment could substantially improve the lives of 40 million US adults

Cutting-edge tinnitus treatment could substantially improve the lives of 40 million US adults

Up to 15% of adults in the United States have tinnitus, where nearly 40% of sufferers have the condition chronically and actively seek relief. (CREDIT: Creative Commons) Up to 15% of adults in the United States hear a constant companion: tinnitus. This medical condition manifests as an incessant ringing, buzzing, or hissing in the ears, and for many, it’s a mere annoyance. The latest study spearheaded by Susan Shore, Ph.D., Professor Emerita at Michigan Medicine’s Department of Otolaryngology and U-M’s Departments of Physiology and Biomedical Engineering, dives deep into the intricacies of how our brain processes bi-sensory information. The central tenet of this research is whether it’s possible to utilize these processes in developing personalized treatments for tinnitus. “We have always known that the solution lies within understanding the brain’s mechanisms. It’s about personalizing the approach to harness these mechanisms for alleviating tinnitus,” remarks Shore. Published in the reputed JAMA Network Open, the study involved a robust double-blind, randomized clinical trial design. Out of a broad spectrum of tinnitus types, the research zoomed in on …

A Dark, Twisted, Substantially Satisfying Fairytale

A Dark, Twisted, Substantially Satisfying Fairytale

The Book of Love by Kelly Link I fell in love with Kelly Link’s writing with her short story collection Get in Trouble, which was shortlisted for the Pulitzer Prize. After proving herself the master of the short story, Link is back, but this time with her debut novel. The Book of Love follows three teenagers — Laura, Daniel, and Mo — who suddenly find themselves in a realm halfway between the living and the dead. Two otherworldly entities who guard the door between life and death decide to play a game with their lives. They will be sent back to the land of the living, but they must compete to see who gets to stay alive and who must return to the land of the dead. The three of them land back in their small town of Lovesend, Massachusetts, with their families having no memory that they’ve died. Now, they possess magic, which they are expected to use to gain the upper hand on one another. Like her short stories, Link’s novel feels like …

Lifechanging new drug substantially reduces both weight and cholesterol levels

Lifechanging new drug substantially reduces both weight and cholesterol levels

A staggering one hundred million Americans suffer from obesity and related cardiometabolic disorders. (CREDIT: iStock Photo) In a groundbreaking discovery, scientists have achieved significant weight loss in obese mice by introducing medication directly into the liver via a novel nanogel carrier. This innovative approach circumvents the issues associated with systemic drug administration, markedly reducing potential side effects. The significance of this method becomes apparent when considering the broader picture. A staggering one hundred million Americans suffer from obesity and related cardiometabolic disorders, comments S. Thai Thayumanavan, a renowned biomedical engineer and chemist from the University of Massachusetts Amherst. “We became pretty excited about this work,” he reveals. The brilliance of this approach is encapsulated, quite literally, in the nanogel. These minuscule carriers are loaded with a synthetic thyroid hormone drug termed a thyromimetic. Essential for liver metabolism, thyroid hormones can be ineffective when taken systemically and carry adverse side effects. “We realized we needed to deliver this drug selectively to the liver because if it goes to other places, it could cause complications,” Thayumanavan explains. …

Lifechanging tinnitus treatment could substantially help over 40 million US adults

Lifechanging tinnitus treatment could substantially help over 40 million US adults

Up to 15% of adults in the United States have tinnitus, where nearly 40% of sufferers have the condition chronically and actively seek relief. (CREDIT: Creative Commons) Up to 15% of adults in the United States hear a constant companion: tinnitus. This medical condition manifests as an incessant ringing, buzzing, or hissing in the ears, and for many, it’s a mere annoyance. The latest study spearheaded by Susan Shore, Ph.D., Professor Emerita at Michigan Medicine’s Department of Otolaryngology and U-M’s Departments of Physiology and Biomedical Engineering, dives deep into the intricacies of how our brain processes bi-sensory information. The central tenet of this research is whether it’s possible to utilize these processes in developing personalized treatments for tinnitus. “We have always known that the solution lies within understanding the brain’s mechanisms. It’s about personalizing the approach to harness these mechanisms for alleviating tinnitus,” remarks Shore. Published in the reputed JAMA Network Open, the study involved a robust double-blind, randomized clinical trial design. Out of a broad spectrum of tinnitus types, the research zoomed in on …

What’s your dog’s age in human years? New formula is substantially more precise

What’s your dog’s age in human years? New formula is substantially more precise

The formula provides a new “epigenetic clock,” a method for determining the age of a cell, tissue or organism based on a readout of its epigenetics. (CREDIT: Creative Commons) For years, dog owners have used the rule of thumb that one dog year equals seven human years to estimate their pet’s age in human years. However, a new formula developed by scientists has shown that the way we have been calculating our furry friend’s age is far from accurate. The formula, developed by researchers at the University of California, San Diego, takes into account the changes in DNA methylation patterns that occur as dogs age, providing a more precise estimation of a dog’s age in human years. The study, which was published in the journal Cell Systems, analyzed the DNA methylation of 104 Labrador Retrievers aged from a few weeks old to 16 years old, allowing researchers to create a new formula that more accurately maps a dog’s age to its human equivalent. According to the formula, a one-year-old dog is equivalent to a 30-year-old …

One of the world’s largest AI training datasets is about to get bigger and ‘substantially better’

One of the world’s largest AI training datasets is about to get bigger and ‘substantially better’

Massive AI training datasets, or corpora, have been called “the backbone of large language models.” But EleutherAI, the organization that created one of the world’s largest of these datasets, an 825 GB open-sourced diverse text corpora called the Pile, became a target in 2023 amid a growing uproar focused on the legal and ethical impact of the datasets that trained the most popular LLMs, from OpenAI’s GPT-4 to Meta’s Llama.  EleutherAI, a grassroots nonprofit research group that began as a loose-knit Discord collective in 2020 that sought to understand how OpenAI’s new GPT-3 worked, was named in one of the many generative AI-focused lawsuits last year. Former Arkansas Governor Mike Huckabee and other authors filed a lawsuit in October that alleged their books were taken without consent and included in Books3, a controversial dataset that contains more than 180,000 works and was included as part of the Pile project (Books3, which was originally uploaded in 2020 by Shawn Presser, was removed from the Internet in August 2023 after a legal notice from a Danish anti-piracy …